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Mª ISABEL RODRÍGUEZ

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CREAR HÁBITOS DE ESTUDIO DESDE EDADES TEMPRANAS

Posted on October 24, 2011 at 6:12 PM
Ha comenzado el curso escolar, con ello se emprende de nuevo la adaptación de padres y niños a los nuevos horarios: acostadas, levantadas, colegio, tareas extraescolares,... Al transcurso de unos meses, resulta más llevadero porque se han habituado al nuevo ritmo, se ha creado un hábito.
Se entiende el hábito como cualquier comportamiento repetido regularmente, que no requiere de previo pensamiento para ser llevado a cabo, y el cual, es aprendido. Este aprendizaje es un proceso progresivo que conlleva una independencia en la realización de la tarea que se necesite potenciar. Por ello, es importante aprovechar este periodo de adaptación para crear buenos hábitos, comenzando por la organización de los horarios de acostada y levanta: para ello es conveniente se establezcan las mimas horas para que el niño se vaya a la cama y se levante por la mañana sin el menor esfuerzo. Puede resultar difícil al principio, ya que el niño se puede mostrar perezoso, e incluso enojarse,… pero a medida que transcurra el tiempo, él mismo será el que lo realice de forma autónoma, como regla establecida.
 Es importante, delimitar normas desde pequeños, porque un niño que ha crecido respetando límites, rutinas y hábitos (sueño, alimentación, higiene...) no se le presenta muchas dificultades cuando afronte la tarea de adquirir el hábito de estudiar. Sin embargo, aquel que no ha conocido rutinas, límites ni orden le sería muy difícil adquirir un hábito como el del estudio que exige concentración y atención. No obstante, para que ello surja efecto es necesario que exista una constancia y claridad en las normas que se dispongan al niño con la finalidad de que éste las añada a su rutina diaria y consiga la deseada independencia.
Conseguir hábitos de estudio determina el buen desempeño académico y ritmo de trabajo y lo mejor para ello es comenzar su entrenamiento desde el inicio escolar, en edades tempranas. Cuando el niño es pequeño lo ideal es que los padres participen para favorecer la concentración, atención, orden…hacia la tarea, hasta que se establezca una rutina diaria. Puesto que ayudar al niño, no quiere decir que debamos hacerle su trabajo, los padres deben mostrarse interesados por lo que hace y estar dispuestos ayudarle en sus dudas pero solamente el niño debería realizar el trabajo; se le debe exigir y al mismo tiempo animar a confiar en sus posibilidades siempre que se esfuerce. Una vez conseguido esto, la compañía se irá disminuyendo en el tiempo progresivamente. Es decir, si al principio se estaba una hora entera, se disminuirá a 45 minutos, después a 30 minutos, más tarde a 15 minutos hasta que desaparezca la figura del progenitor en la hora de estudio, todo ello con la finalidad de que el niño se haga independiente y  desarrolle habilidades propicias hacia el aprendizaje. En caso, de que el niño requiera de ayuda constante sería conveniente que se consultara con un especialista, pues podría ser debido a un déficit en la comprensión lectora, atención, etc.
No hay que olvidar que el hábito se adquiere a fuerza de repetirlo y no es necesario esperar a que el niño tenga deberes o exámenes. Es muy importante que acabe toda aquella tarea que comience.
            Para favorecer el hábito de estudio, es necesario tener en cuenta unas condiciones necesarias:
  • Hacerlo siempre en el mismo lugar.
  • Tener todo el material de trabajo al alcance de la mano.
  • Planificar o estimar de antemano el tiempo que se dedicará a cada tarea.
  • Hacerlo siempre a la misma hora: durante la semana las primeras horas de la tarde y los fines de semana en las horas posteriores a levantarse, son los momentos más aconsejables.

Categories: INFORMACIÓN

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