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CÓMO REACCIÓNAR ANTE EL FRACASO ESCOLAR
PADRES SEPARADOS: RECOMENDACIONES DE CÓMO EDUCAR A SUS HIJOS
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CÓMO REACCIÓNAR ANTE EL FRACASO ESCOLAR

Dentro del sistema de enseñanza actual la eficacia o el fracaso escolar, es un problema de suma importancia. Donde la situación de fracaso acarrea una serie de problemas y tensiones emocionales que repercuten en el desarrollo personal e, incluso, pueden llevar a una deficiente integración social. Por desgracia, cada vez está más de moda suspender y no aprobar, ello se comprueba al final de cada evaluación porque es frecuente escuchar:  -¿cuántas te quedaron?; cuando en antaño, la pregunta era: -¿te quedó alguna?
                                               
Ante los suspensos, lo primero que deben hacer los progenitores es analizar con el estudiante las causas que han llevado a esas calificaciones. Este paso es esencial para buscar las posibles soluciones a la situación de fracaso escolar. Lo más común es darles una “regañina” o ponerles un castigo para que sea responsable de sus actos. Si se decide imponer una sanción, es fundamental que haya acuerdo entre los dos progenitores y no levantar el castigo antes del tiempo previsto para no perder la autoridad ante el estudiante. Debe haber coherencia entre la naturaleza de la sanción y el motivo por el que se impone, hay que evitar castigar con la privación de cosas positivas. Castigar a un estudiante sin practicar su deporte favorito por un suspenso tiene menos lógica que obligarle a estudiar durante un tiempo determinado. El objetivo del mismo, debe ser que el alumno adquiera sentido de la responsabilidad y entienda que hay que afrontar las consecuencias de sus actos inadecuados.
 
 
No obstante, el castigo no soluciona el fracaso escolar. El motivo del mismo, puede ser por una situación pasajera debido a posibles problemas psicológicos, inmadurez o falta de capacidades cognitivas (memoria, razonamiento, atención,…) U otras veces, la situación puede ser permanente y perturbadora. Por lo que, en un caso o en el otro se requiere de analizar detalladamente a qué puede ser debido:
 
 
Deberíamos analizar en primer lugar, el ambiente familiar, puesto que los niños necesitan un ambiente familiar rico en estímulos, donde capten una verdadera implicación de la familia en su vida escolar.
 
 
En segundo lugar, la autoestima, porque muchas veces las malas calificaciones esconden una baja autoestima en los niños. Si sienten que no son capaces de alcanzar las metas que se proponen, será difícil que las logren. Por lo que es muy importante que cuidemos el concepto que tienen de ellos mismos y que les devolvamos una imagen positiva de quienes son y de lo que hacen. Hay que enseñarles a integrar los errores en el proceso de aprendizaje y no venirse abajo ante las dificultades: todos los problemas tienen solución.
 
 
En tercer lugar, se debe analizar las estrategias cognitivas como la atención, la lectoescritura, la memoria, hábitos de estudio, posibles dificultades de aprendizaje:
En el caso de la atención es muy importante desde pequeños  habituarles a tareas que les ayuden a centrar su atención durante períodos de tiempo apropiados a su edad, porque para aprender es fundamental que sean capaces de concentrarse en la tarea.
La lectoescritura es de vital importancia, tener una buena comprensión lectora y expresión escrita es una clave fundamental y relevante para obtener el éxito escolar en todas las asignaturas y si no las dominan, el edificio se tambalea desde sus cimientos. Hay que ofrecerles modelos adecuados desde pequeñitos y fomentar en ellos el amor por la lectura y la escritura. Si observamos dificultades en este campo, es preciso atajarlas cuanto antes y acudir a un profesional.
La memoria, porque es tan importante es que memoricen lo que estudian como que lo entiendan. Para ello deberán comprender primero y retener después. También conviene que memoricen «de forma adecuada», es decir, relacionando lo nuevo con los conocimientos ya adquiridos. Si se consigue esto, se consigue un aprendizaje significativo muy difícil de olvidar. Ello, es una capacidad clave para el rendimiento académico que se puede ejercitar y estimular con juegos y actividades divertidas.
A veces, el problema radica en que el niño tiene dificultades de aprendizaje o baja capacidad intelectual. En estos casos se precisa una atención especializada cuanto antes. Pero el caso opuesto también puede conllevar fracaso escolar; hay niños con altas capacidades que pueden no ver satisfechas sus necesidades en el colegio (contenidos que se les quedan muy bajos, aburrimiento, intereses diferentes). En ambos casos es prioritario detectarlo a tiempo.
Se debe analizar si el estudiante posee hábitos de estudio adecuados. De nada sirve que se pasen las horas muertas delante del libro si no aprovechan ese tiempo, por lo que, se debería proporcionar técnicas de estudio que les permitan aprender deforma ágil y eficaz. Es importante, que tengan su rincón de estudio, todo alumno debe tener un lugar  libre de distracciones, de las posibles interrupciones de familiares y donde tenga todo su material escolar a mano y ejercitarlos en el trabajo individual, no dejando aparcadas las asignaturas hasta el examen.
La motivación es la capacidad mental que te prepara para iniciar una actividad o una acción con interés y eficiencia. No obstante, si no existe motivación por el estudio habrá una falta de motivación de los chavales por todo lo que conlleva: falta de esfuerzo personal y abandono de sus tareas. Ante esto debemos fomentar en ellos el afán por hacer las cosas por sí mismos y la alegría por conseguir las metas que se marquen. También conviene que les demos una imagen positiva de lo académico: evitemos comentarios sobre lo «rollo» que es el “cole” o “la rabia que da volver a clase el lunes”.
 
 
En suma, el objetivo de analizar los factores que pueden intervenir en el fracaso escolar es solucionar tal hecho, lo cual, se puede conseguir a corto o a largo plazo según las capacidades del estudiante; trabajando adecuadamente con las estrategias adecuadas, de forma constante,  con la colaboración y apoyo de los padres, principalmente.
 
 
 

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